Passive Optical Networks have been implemented seamlessly in verticals like Airports, Industries, Corporate buildings, the education sector, etc., providing a high level of experience and sturdiness for end-users in these verticals. Passive Optical Network (PON) is a telecommunications network that conveys data via fibre-optic lines that utilize point-to-multipoint topology.
This network is primarily used to transmit signals simultaneously in both downstream and upstream directions. The evolution of PON is a crucial concern in the telecom industry. E-pon, G-pon, and 10g-pon are popular passive optical network types with many applications, including service support capabilities, improved performance of access nodes, and enhanced bandwidths.
Here, we will compare and contrast the three PON types’ main features to help you make out the difference among them.
Over the years, many PON standards have been designed. PON is at times called the ‘last mile’ between a provider and user. The reduced cabling infrastructure makes it ideal for home internet. An innovation integral to PON operation is WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing), mainly used to separate data streams depending on the color (wavelength) of laser light.
The ITU-T developed a gigabit passive optical network (GPON), and it utilizes IP-based protocols. It uses optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM); hence one fiber can be used for both upstream and downstream data. It is a point to multipoint access type of network that is the de facto PON standard popularly used today.
G--PON’s primary feature is that it uses passive splitters in a fiber network to serve multiple homes and small businesses from the provider’s main office. It is also renowned for its great flexibility for various traffic types. The GPON encapsulation method can package Ethernet, VoIP, IP, and much more data types.
The upstream wavelength is configured at 1310nm and the downstream wavelength at 1490nm. Downstream speed stands at 2.5Gbps and 1.25 Gbps for upstream.
E-PON is an earlier PON standard developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The PON type is entirely compatible with the other Ethernet standards; thus, there is neither a need for conversion nor encapsulation while connecting to Ethernet-based networks on either end. It uses WDM with optical frequencies similar to those of TDMA and GPON.
The network may at times be called Gigabit Ethernet PON or GEPON. A conventional E-PON can support speeds of up to 1.25 Gbps downstream and upstream. More like G-PON, E-PON has a range of between twenty and forty kilometers (12-24 miles) depending on the split-ratio.
10G-PON, also referred to as XG-PON, was developed in 2010 as a computer networking standard for delivering shared access rates and data links over existing dark fiber. This is the ITU-T’s next-generation specification that followed the Gigabit-capable PON or G-PON. It can back the distribution of Gigabit packages.
10G-PON increases speed to 10 Gbps downstream and upstream and enables coexistence with installed devices sharing a network. Moreover, it is safe to say 10G-PON is an extension of the present G-PON.
The main difference lies in the usable bandwidth each PON network offers. Users select downstream and upstream rates depending on their requirements for GPON, making it more flexible than EPON and 10G-PON. For each type, the usable bandwidth rating is as follows:
GPON – Downstream: 2.5Gbit/s and Upstream: 1.25 Gbit/s
EPON – 1 Gbit/s symmetrical bandwidth
10G PON – Downstream 10Gbit/s and Upstream 2.5 Gbit/s
The reach for each network and popularity area also vary with changes in the network. Reach can also be referred to as split ratio or the number of customers intended to be served by a PON type. GPON is mainly used in the United States, while EPON is more widespread in Asia and Europe. The area for 10G-Pon as of the time this guide is written has not yet been determined.
The specific maximum reach/split ratios for each PON network type is:
GPON – 128 ONUs
EPON – 32 ONUs per OLT OR 64 FEC
10G-PON – 128 users per PON or more with reach amplifiers or extenders
Monthly or daily costs per subscriber are also unique for each PON type: EPON has lower costs while GPON’s costs are slightly higher and 10G-PON highest for apparent reasons. The split ratio largely influences the costs. All the types, however, support CATV overlay.
Ethernet protocol has no characteristic quality of service capability. A PON system cannot be viable without QoS. Thus, most vendors enable this using VLAN in EPON. This solves the QoS issue, but it brings about higher costs. GPON has an integrated QoS handling while 10G-PON QoS provisioning mainly depends on allocation mechanisms: the MPCP.
PON has gradually continued to improve, and its potential applications have also grown. Due to latency demands and bandwidth imposed by the 5G network, PON can be used to complete front haul connections, enhance connections, and reduce fiber count without compromising performance.
PON enables the integration of campus and business functions such as building management, parking, and security management with fewer dedicated equipment and cabling systems. Businesses can as well benefit from PON implementation with reduced equipment maintenance or installation costs.
The pros of using PON are plenty. The most fundamental importance of PON are:
Increased power efficiency
Efficient use infrastructure
Like anything else, PONs have their disadvantages too. The most notable are:
Distance – the range is limited to only 20 to 40 kilometers
Test access – troubleshooting can be challenging
We have given you the best information about 10G-PON vs. E-PON vs. G-PON. Hopefully, you find the information satisfactory and educative. PON technology is a crucial way to carry over broadband access network services. As this technology continues improving, the economic and strategic advantages of PON become more compelling. The main challenges currently being addressed are range capability as well as higher splitter ratios. Together with speeds of up to 10Gbps, these enhancements will help enhance the growth of passive optical networks globally.